OCA Core Technical Details, Design and Implementation
One Chain Africa as a Layer 0 protocol
OCA is a layer 0 blockchain protocol, which means it is not a layer 1 or layer 2 solution, but rather a foundation upon which other blockchains can be built. OCA is designed to facilitate the creation of a scalable and interoperable multichain network by providing a secure and decentralized platform for communication and coordination between different blockchains across Africa.
OCA’s architecture includes a central chain, called the “core chain,” which serves as the main communication hub for the network, and multiple parallel chains, called “mantle chains,” which are connected to the core chain. These mantle chains can be customized to suit different use cases, such as handling smart contracts, providing privacy features, or supporting cross-chain interoperability and at the core of it, to power independent but connected stablecoins for each African country.
OCA’s architecture also includes several other features that enable scalability and interoperability, such as shared security, which allows the connected mantle chains to benefit from the security of the core chain, and a standardized messaging protocol, which facilitates communication and interoperability between different chains.
Our Blockchain Architecture explained.
OCA blockchain multichain architecture is a network of multiple blockchain networks that are interoperable with each other, allowing them to share data and assets across the network. It consists of multiple parallel chains or sub-networks, called “mantle chains,” that are connected to a central chain, called the “core chain.” Each of these mantle chains operates independently and has its own set of rules and consensus mechanism depending on the country’s choice of deployment, but they can communicate with each other and the core chain through a standardized messaging protocol. In technical terms, our multichain architecture consists of three well-known main components: the core chain, the mantle chains, and the bridges.
OCA would be built on a multi-chain infrastructure that supports multiple blockchain platforms cutting across all African countries
The core chain or core chain is the backbone of the multichain architecture. It is a central blockchain network that coordinates and manages communication between the different country-chains (mantle chains). The core chain is responsible for validating and executing transactions, and it also maintains the shared state of the entire network. The core chain will be designed to be highly secure, scalable, and decentralized, and it will use a consensus mechanism to ensure that transactions are verified and added to the blockchain.
In our blockchain architecture, the core chain will serve as a hub for the network, connecting all the country-chains and enabling them to communicate and interact with each other herey providing a connected ledger for the continent. It will maintain a record of all the transactions that occur on the network and ensure that the state of each connected chain is synchronized with the overall network state. It will use the Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus mechanisms to validate transactions and maintain network security.
The mantle chains or connected chains here are independent blockchain networks that operate in parallel to the core chain deployed for each African country. Each chain will have its own unique features and characteristics, and it is optimized for a specific use case or application usually one like the other. These mantle chains can communicate with each other and with the core chain through standardized protocols, allowing them to exchange data and assets seamlessly. The mantle chains will be designed to be lightweight, fast, and scalable, and they can be customized to meet the specific needs of different applications.
Each mantle chain operates independently and has its own set of rules, consensus mechanism, and token economy, but it can communicate with other connected chains and the core chain. These mantle chains will have a specific focus or function within the overall network, such as supporting smart contracts, handling identity and authentication, providing privacy features and at the core of it, represent the stablecoin of the country. They will be designed to work in parallel with each other, enabling the network to handle more transactions and scale more effectively.
The core production will provide Bridges as a service which basically are connectors that enable communication between the multichain network and external blockchain networks. Our bridges integration will allow the multichain network to interact with other blockchain networks and to exchange data and assets across different blockchain platforms. They will also provide additional security and scalability features, such as cross-chain atomic swaps and off-chain scaling solutions. This will ensure that the African chain doesn’t become an island unable to communicate with other chains such as Bitcoin, Polygon, Ethereum among others.
OCA would provide users with a multi-currency wallet to store and manage their cryptocurrencies (Assets and stablecoins). The wallet would support a wide range of cryptocurrencies, including stablecoins.
This comes with solid interoperability standard. Our standards for interoperability between different blockchain networks are important for enabling cross-chain communication and interoperability. These standards will define how data is exchanged and verified between different chains and networks.
The governance model for the network will determine how decisions are made about the network's development, maintenance, and operation. This contributes to our no-fork deployment ensuring that all possibilities of a hard-fork due to operations and development are prevented through well-governed decentralized decision making. The governance will be decentralized, with token holders having voting power, supported by centralized option, with a designated group or entity making decisions when required.
Other important features
Our MP as others is a standardized protocol that allows for communication between the core chain and the country-chains, as well as communication between different connected chains. The messaging protocol enables cross-chain transactions and interoperability between different chains in the network.
Each mantle chain may be designed to have its own consensus mechanism, which determines how transactions are validated and added to the chain. Some common consensus mechanisms used in multichain architectures is the Proof of Stake (PoS) due to the low energy requirement.
OCA would have a robust infrastructure for the development of stablecoins, including the integration of a decentralized exchange (DEX) to support trading of stablecoins with other cryptocurrencies. (See paper on Stablecoin implementation)
OCA would implement a KYC-as-a-Service solution to enable users to verify their identity on the blockchain platform seamlessly. The solution would include the ability to access KYC services from multiple providers and maintain an audit trail of KYC verification for compliance purposes. (See attached paper on KYC implantation)
The platform would provide an API integration that enables third-party developers to build Dapps and utilize the platform’s functionalities
OCA would provide users with a decentralized exchange (DEX) to enable trading of cryptocurrencies, including stablecoins. The DEX would support cross-chain trading and provide users with access to a wide range of trading pairs.
Technical Implementation and Design Summary
Design Principle for OCA: Modularization and Interoperability
To ensure a robust and scalable design for the OCA (On-chain Africa) network, the application of modularization and interoperability principles is crucial. Here’s a suggested design principle and implementation approach for OCA:
The OCA network would be designed in a modular way, so that each mantle chain and its associated stablecoin can be developed and deployed independently. This will allow for greater flexibility and scalability as the network grows.
- Divide the OCA system into cohesive and reusable modules.
- Each module would encapsulate a specific functionality or feature set.
- Modules can include components for cross-chain messaging, On-chain KYC, stablecoin management, and interchain communication.
- Modular design allows for easier maintenance, testing, and upgrading of specific components without affecting the entire system.
Interoperability on OCA ensures that cross-chain communication in not only feasible but scalable across all Mantle chains enabling a well connected services and use cases across Africa.
- Implement standard protocols and APIs for seamless communication between the OCA core chain and the individual Mantle chains.
- Utilize cross-chain messaging protocols to facilitate interoperability and data transfer between the different Mantle chains.
- Define a common data format or schema to enable efficient exchange of information across the network.
- Ensure compatibility with existing blockchain standards to encourage collaboration and integration with other networks.
These represents the core features of OCA enabling transaction fees to be paid in local currency while also ensuring all deployment are regulatory compliant among others.
- Develop a robust and secure mechanism for On-chain KYC (Know Your Customer) verification within each Mantle chain.
- Implement smart contracts or decentralized identity solutions to handle the KYC process, ensuring compliance with local regulations.
- Design a local currency pegged stablecoin at the core of each Mantle chain, enabling seamless cross-border transactions and fostering economic stability.
The OCA network would use a decentralized storage system to ensure that data is secure and accessible to all nodes on the network. This can be achieved through the use of IPFS or similar technologies.
- Employ efficient and scalable storage solutions to handle the increasing volume of data generated by the OCA network.
- Consider utilizing distributed storage systems, such as IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) or similar technologies, to store large files and off-chain data.
- Optimize data structures and database designs to maximize performance and minimize storage requirements.
The OCA network would have a robust development environment, with tools and resources to help developers build and test their applications. This can include development frameworks, testing suites, and documentation.
- Provide a developer-friendly environment with well-documented APIs, SDKs, and tooling.
- Offer comprehensive documentation, tutorials, and code examples to facilitate easy integration and development on the OCA network.
- Encourage community engagement and collaboration through developer forums and open-source contributions.
It’s important to ensure that the OCA network is designed with strong type safety, to reduce the risk of bugs and vulnerabilities. This can be achieved through the use of a statically typed language, as well as through rigorous testing and code review. The network would also provide a standard interface for function calling between mantle chains, to ensure interoperability and ease of use for developers. This can be achieved through the use of smart contracts and standardized APIs.
- Utilize a strongly typed programming language to enforce type safety and reduce runtime errors.
- Implement well-defined function interfaces with clear input and output specifications.
- Apply proper error handling and exception management practices to ensure robustness and reliability.
The OCA network would be designed with parallelization in mind, so that it can take advantage of multi-core processors and other hardware optimizations. This can help to improve performance and scalability.
- Design the OCA network to take advantage of parallel processing capabilities, enabling efficient execution of tasks and improving performance.
- Identify computationally intensive operations that can benefit from parallelization, such as transaction processing or data verification.
- Leverage technologies like multithreading or distributed computing to achieve parallel execution where appropriate.
The OCA network would have a well-designed command-line interface (CLI) that allows developers to interact with the network and deploy their applications. This would be easy to use and well-documented, to encourage adoption by developers.
- Develop a user-friendly and intuitive CLI tool to interact with the OCA network.
- Include essential commands for managing Mantle chains, initiating cross-chain transactions, querying network status, and accessing relevant information.
- Provide clear documentation and help resources for users to navigate the CLI effectively.
- By incorporating these design principles and implementation strategies, the OCA network can achieve modularity, interoperability, scalability, security, and developer-friendliness. This will facilitate seamless cross-chain messaging, enable On-chain KYC and stablecoin functionality, and ensure smooth operation of the multichain network supporting African countries.
- Plugin Architecture: Adopting a plugin architecture allows for easy integration of new features or components into the system. By defining well-documented interfaces and providing a standardized plugin development framework, developers can extend the functionality of OCA without modifying the core codebase.
- APIs and SDKs: Designing well-defined APIs and providing software development kits (SDKs) allows developers to build applications on top of OCA and integrate their own services or modules. This opens the system to external developers, fostering innovation and expanding the ecosystem.
- Configuration and Parameterization: The OCA system would be highly configurable and parameterizable to accommodate variations in network settings, chain specifications, and business rules. This flexibility enables customization and adaptation to specific requirements without requiring significant code modifications.
- Standardization and Interoperability: Following standardized protocols and formats for data exchange and function calling promotes interoperability between OCA and other systems. It allows for seamless integration with external services, networks, or blockchains, expanding the reach and capabilities of OCA.
- Scalability Considerations: The design would account for scalability by considering techniques like sharding or partitioning to accommodate the growth of the network. This ensures that OCA can handle an increasing number of Mantle chains and the associated cross-chain messaging without compromising performance or stability.
- Standardization of Interfaces: Interfaces would be standardized and well-defined, to allow for easy integration of new functionalities and components. This also ensures consistency and predictability in the behavior of the system.
- Openness: The OCA network would be designed to be open and extensible, to encourage community participation and contributions to the development of the network. This can be achieved by providing well-documented APIs and development tools that allow developers to easily build and integrate new features into the network.
Based on these design principles and considerations, a possible implementation for the OCA network would include the following:
- The OCA network could be developed in Solidity, a widely used programming language for developing smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain.
- Each mantle chain and its associated stablecoin could be developed as an independent smart contract, which can be deployed on the OCA network.
- The network could use a decentralized storage system such as IPFS to store data, ensuring that it is secure and accessible to all nodes on the network.
- The OCA network could use standardized APIs and smart contracts to enable cross-chain messaging and interoperability between mantle chains.
- The network could provide a well-designed CLI to allow developers to interact with the network and deploy their applications.
By following these design principles and implementing these features, the OCA network aims to provide a robust and scalable platform for cross-chain messaging and interoperability in its multichain network, with On-chain KYC and local currency pegged stablecoin at the core of each Mantle chain.
On-chain KYC in OCA Design and Implementation
On-chain KYC (Know Your Customer) and Cross-Chain Messaging are critical components of the OCA (Open Chain Africa) system, contributing to its security, compliance, and interoperability. In implementing this for OCA, the best design framework will be utilized as stated in the subsequent paragraphs.
On-chain KYC is a mechanism implemented within the OCA system to verify and authenticate users across the Mantle chains. It ensures compliance with regulatory requirements, enhances security, and promotes trust within the network. Here are some key considerations for designing and implementing On-chain KYC in OCA:
User identities and KYC-related information would be stored in an immutable and secure manner on the blockchain. This ensures that the data remains tamper-proof and resistant to unauthorized modifications, enhancing the trustworthiness of the KYC process.
While ensuring compliance, OCA would prioritize user privacy and data protection. Utilize encryption and other privacy-enhancing techniques to safeguard sensitive user information and prevent unauthorized access or leakage of personal data. We will implement encryption and secure storage techniques, such as cryptographic hashing, which will help protect sensitive user information while still ensuring its accessibility for verification purposes.
We will design the On-chain KYC module to adhere to relevant legal and regulatory frameworks specific to each African country. This includes ensuring compliance with data protection laws, anti-money laundering (AML) regulations, and other applicable regulations to promote legal and regulatory compliance throughout the network.
Enable users to have control over their KYC information and provide explicit consent for its usage. Implement mechanisms that allow users to manage their data, including revoking access permissions or updating information when necessary.
Design the On-chain KYC process to be auditable and transparent. This includes providing a clear audit trail of user verification activities, maintaining logs of data access and changes, and ensuring that the KYC process can be independently verified.
OCA would employ robust identity verification methods to ensure the authenticity of user identities. This will involve the use of digital signatures, multi-factor authentication, biometric data, or integration with trusted third-party identity verification providers.
As the OCA network grows and user activity increases, the on-chain KYC mechanism design will be in such that will easily handle the scalability and performance requirements. We will implement efficient algorithms, data structures, and smart contract optimizations to help maintain responsiveness and minimize transaction costs.
User experience is crucial in on-chain KYC. Our design would aim for a seamless and intuitive user onboarding process, minimizing friction while collecting the necessary user information. Additionally, clear and concise communication would be provided to users about the purpose and handling of their personal data.
Local Currency Pegged Stablecoin Implementation in OCA Design and Implementation
Local currency pegged stablecoin implementation is a crucial component of the OCA (One Chain Africa) system. The component ensures ease of facilitation of cross-border transactions and transaction fee payment. Let’s explore the best design suggestions for implementing local currency pegged stablecoins in OCA.
More details on the implementation criteria can be seen in the published papers. We have chosen a similar approach to the deployment of Mobile Money operations enabling seamless funding of wallets etc. The local currency pegged stablecoins lie at the core of each Mantle chain in the OCA network. Implementing these stablecoins requires careful consideration of the following design suggestions:
To ensure the stability and pegging of the stablecoins to local currencies, a centralized reserve and custodian system can be established. This entity would hold the corresponding fiat currency reserves that back the stablecoins, providing transparency and trust in the stability of the peg.
Regular third-party audits of the reserve and custodian can be conducted to verify the existence and sufficiency of the fiat currency reserves. This ensures that the stablecoins maintain their value and remain pegged to the local currency.
The stablecoin smart contracts would be designed with well-defined rules and mechanisms for maintaining the peg. This can involve features such as automatic minting and burning of stablecoins based on demand and supply dynamics, ensuring that the supply remains balanced with the fiat currency reserves.
The design would focus on scalability and transaction speed to handle a large volume of stablecoin transactions across the OCA network. Employing techniques like sidechains, layer-2 solutions, or off-chain transactions can enhance the scalability while maintaining the pegged value.
Adhering to local regulatory frameworks and compliance requirements is crucial for the successful implementation of local currency pegged stablecoins. We will prioritize collaboration with regulatory authorities and ensuring compliance with anti-money laundering (AML) and counter-terrorism financing (CTF) regulations build trust and enable the stablecoins to be seamlessly integrated with the existing financial ecosystem.
Cross-Chain Messaging in OCA Design and Implementation
Just as seen on other recent generation platforms, cross-chain messaging is a crucial functionality that enables interoperability between the 54 Mantle chains. It facilitates the seamless transfer of data, assets, and transactions across the network. Here are some important designs that we are considering for implementing Cross-Chain Messaging in OCA.
We will establish a standardized messaging protocol that ensures consistent communication between the Mantle chains. This protocol would define the structure, format, and security measures for exchanging messages across chains, promoting interoperability and compatibility.
We will implement strong encryption techniques to secure the messages transmitted across chains. This ensures confidentiality and integrity, preventing unauthorized access or tampering of the message content during transmission.
Our design mechanisms will ensure reliable message delivery and proper ordering across the network. This may involve implementing acknowledgement mechanisms, message queues, or consensus algorithms to guarantee that messages are correctly received and processed by the intended recipients.
We will also consider scalability and performance implications when designing Cross-Chain Messaging. As the network grows and the number of transactions increases, ensure that the messaging system can handle the growing volume of messages while maintaining high throughput and low latency.
We will be integrating the Cross-Chain Messaging functionality with smart contracts to automate and enforce certain actions based on the received messages. This allows for the execution of predefined logic and ensures consistency and trust in cross-chain interactions.
We will prioritize the implementation of error handling mechanisms to address potential issues in cross-chain messaging, such as network failures, message timeouts, or inconsistencies. Define appropriate error handling procedures, including retries, timeouts, and fallback mechanisms, to ensure robustness and fault tolerance.
OCA would establish interoperability protocols or standards that facilitate seamless communication between different Mantle chains. These protocols would define the message formats, data structures, and validation mechanisms to ensure consistent and reliable message transmission.
OCA would provide mechanisms to audit and verify the integrity of cross-chain messages. Immutable logs, timestamping, or event sourcing techniques will be employed to enable transparent tracking and verification of message history.
Storage/Data Management in OCA Design and Implementation
Storage and data management play a crucial role in the design and implementation of the OCA (One Chain Africa) system. Efficiently handling the large volume of data generated by the network, ensuring data integrity, and providing reliable access to data are essential for the success of OCA. Let’s explore the best design suggestions for storage and data management in OCA, considering the utilization of a newly deployed storage solution like IPFS (Interplanetary File System) in Africa.
OCA would adopt a scalable storage architecture that can handle the growing volume of data generated by the network. The design would consider the partitioning and distribution of data across multiple IPFS nodes to ensure redundancy, fault tolerance, and improved retrieval performance.
To enhance performance and scalability, data partitioning techniques can be employed. This involves dividing the data into smaller, manageable chunks and distributing them across multiple IPFS nodes. Partitioning can be based on various criteria, such as geographical location, Mantle chains, or transaction types. It allows for parallel processing, reduces latency, and improves overall system efficiency.
Replicating data across multiple IPFS nodes ensures redundancy and fault tolerance. Redundancy safeguards against data loss in the event of node failures or network disruptions. By maintaining multiple copies of the data, OCA can ensure data availability and reliability, even in adverse conditions.
Data security is paramount in OCA. Encryption techniques would be employed to protect sensitive data stored in IPFS. Strong encryption algorithms, secure key management, and access control mechanisms would be implemented to ensure confidentiality and integrity.
To maintain the integrity and consistency of the stored data, cryptographic hashes or checksums can be utilized. These hashes can be stored on-chain or within IPFS itself, allowing for easy verification of data integrity. Regular checks and audits would be performed to detect and rectify any inconsistencies.
Implementing caching mechanisms can improve data retrieval performance in OCA. Frequently accessed data or popular transactions can be cached closer to the network edge or within Mantle chains, reducing latency and network congestion. Caching can be done using in-memory solutions or distributed caching systems to accelerate data access.
OCA would have robust disaster recovery and backup strategies in place. Regularly backing up the data stored in IPFS ensures that data can be restored in the event of system failures, data corruption, or other unforeseen circumstances. Multiple backup locations, redundancy measures, and backup frequency would be considered to minimize the risk of data loss.
OCA must adhere to data governance and compliance requirements, including data protection regulations and privacy laws. Designing the storage and data management systems with privacy by design principles, ensuring user consent, and implementing appropriate data access controls help OCA meet regulatory obligations and maintain user trust
Continuous monitoring and maintenance of the storage infrastructure are crucial for identifying and resolving issues proactively. Monitoring tools and processes would be in place to track storage performance, detect bottlenecks, and address capacity limitations. Regular system maintenance, including software updates and security patches, would be conducted to ensure a stable and secure storage environment.